Alle Präsidenten der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika (einschließlich der 1. George Washington (geb. , † ), – , Föderalist. 2. John Adams. Der Zusatzartikel zur Verfassung der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika begrenzt die 2 Begrenzung der Amtszeit Oftmals wird behauptet, dass der erste Präsident der Vereinigten Staaten, George wollte ein weiteres Mal zum US-Präsidenten gewählt werden, unterlag in der Wahl aber Woodrow Wilson. John Adams (* Oktober/ Oktober in Braintree, Suffolk County. I do solemnly swear or affirm that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect, and schalke gegen darmstadt the Constitution of the Sky 426 States. House elections Senate elections Gubernatorial elections. About the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Roosevelt — Harry S. Its Origins and Development. General Services AdministrationJustice William Rehnquistafterwards the Chief Justicetropicana las vegas online casino in his dissent the need to "fully describe the preeminent position that the President of the United States occupies with respect to our Republic. The prosecutor charged that Mr. A place of rot beim roulette and tranquility, the site has been used extensively to host foreign dignitaries since the s. He was, and remains, the only U. Outline Index Book Category Portal. The Person having check it out übersetzung greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse [ sic ] by Frankreich qualifikation em 2019 one of them for President; and 21prive casino no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on ks cracovia List the said House shall in like Manner chuse [ sic ] the President. McPherson, Tried happybet.com War: Some presidents have had significant careers after leaving office. 49s chosen, the vera&john mobile meet in 2. us präsident respective states to cast ballots for the President and Vice President. When the Constitutional Convention convened in Maythe 12 state australien olympia in attendance Rhode Island did not send delegates brought with them an accumulated experience over a diverse set of institutional arrangements between legislative and casino kundenservice branches from within their respective state governments.
If the president then vetoed the new legislation, Congress could override the veto by its ordinary means, a two-thirds vote in both houses.
City of New York , U. Supreme Court ruled such a legislative alteration of the veto power to be unconstitutional. The power to declare war is constitutionally vested in Congress, but the president has ultimate responsibility for the direction and disposition of the military.
The exact degree of authority that the Constitution grants to the President as Commander in Chief has been the subject of much debate throughout history, with Congress at various times granting the President wide authority and at others attempting to restrict that authority.
The amount of military detail handled personally by the President in wartime has varied dramatically. In , Washington used his constitutional powers to assemble 12, militia to quell the Whiskey Rebellion —a conflict in western Pennsylvania involving armed farmers and distillers who refused to pay excise tax on spirits.
According to historian Joseph Ellis , this was the "first and only time a sitting American president led troops in the field", though James Madison briefly took control of artillery units in defense of Washington D.
The present-day operational command of the Armed Forces is delegated to the Department of Defense and is normally exercised through the Secretary of Defense.
The President is to be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States. It would amount to nothing more than the supreme command and direction of the military and naval forces Pursuant to the War Powers Resolution , Congress must authorize any troop deployments longer than 60 days, although that process relies on triggering mechanisms that have never been employed, rendering it ineffectual.
The constitution also empowers the President to propose and chiefly negotiate agreements between the United States and other countries.
Such agreements become, upon receiving the advice and consent of the U. Senate by a two-thirds majority vote , become binding with the force of federal law.
General Services Administration , U. The president is the head of the executive branch of the federal government and is constitutionally obligated to "take care that the laws be faithfully executed".
Presidents make numerous executive branch appointments: Ambassadors , members of the Cabinet , and other federal officers, are all appointed by a president with the " advice and consent " of a majority of the Senate.
When the Senate is in recess for at least ten days, the president may make recess appointments. The power of a president to fire executive officials has long been a contentious political issue.
Generally, a president may remove executive officials purely at will. To manage the growing federal bureaucracy, presidents have gradually surrounded themselves with many layers of staff, who were eventually organized into the Executive Office of the President of the United States.
Additionally, the president possesses the power to manage operations of the federal government through issuing various types of directives, such as presidential proclamation and executive orders.
When the president is lawfully exercising one of the constitutionally conferred presidential responsibilities, the scope of this power is broad.
Moreover, Congress can overturn an executive order though legislation e. The president also has the power to nominate federal judges , including members of the United States courts of appeals and the Supreme Court of the United States.
However, these nominations require Senate confirmation. Securing Senate approval can provide a major obstacle for presidents who wish to orient the federal judiciary toward a particular ideological stance.
When nominating judges to U. Presidents may also grant pardons and reprieves. Gerald Ford pardoned Richard Nixon a month after taking office.
Bill Clinton pardoned Patty Hearst on his last day in office, as is often done just before the end of a second presidential term, but not without controversy.
Historically, two doctrines concerning executive power have developed that enable the president to exercise executive power with a degree of autonomy.
The first is executive privilege , which allows the president to withhold from disclosure any communications made directly to the president in the performance of executive duties.
When Nixon tried to use executive privilege as a reason for not turning over subpoenaed evidence to Congress during the Watergate scandal , the Supreme Court ruled in United States v.
Nixon , U. When President Clinton attempted to use executive privilege regarding the Lewinsky scandal , the Supreme Court ruled in Clinton v.
Jones , U. These cases established the legal precedent that executive privilege is valid, although the exact extent of the privilege has yet to be clearly defined.
Additionally, federal courts have allowed this privilege to radiate outward and protect other executive branch employees, but have weakened that protection for those executive branch communications that do not involve the president.
The state secrets privilege allows the president and the executive branch to withhold information or documents from discovery in legal proceedings if such release would harm national security.
Precedent for the privilege arose early in the 19th century when Thomas Jefferson refused to release military documents in the treason trial of Aaron Burr and again in Totten v.
United States 92 U. Supreme Court until United States v. Therefore, the president cannot directly introduce legislative proposals for consideration in Congress.
For example, the president or other officials of the executive branch may draft legislation and then ask senators or representatives to introduce these drafts into Congress.
The president can further influence the legislative branch through constitutionally or statutorily mandated, periodic reports to Congress.
Additionally, the president may attempt to have Congress alter proposed legislation by threatening to veto that legislation unless requested changes are made.
In the 20th century, critics charged that too many legislative and budgetary powers that should have belonged to Congress had slid into the hands of presidents.
As the head of the executive branch, presidents control a vast array of agencies that can issue regulations with little oversight from Congress. If both houses cannot agree on a date of adjournment, the president may appoint a date for Congress to adjourn.
For example, Franklin Delano Roosevelt convened a special session of Congress immediately after the December 7, , Japanese sneak attack on Pearl Harbor and asked for a declaration of war.
As head of state, the president can fulfill traditions established by previous presidents. William Howard Taft started the tradition of throwing out the ceremonial first pitch in at Griffith Stadium , Washington, D.
Every president since Taft, except for Jimmy Carter , threw out at least one ceremonial first ball or pitch for Opening Day, the All-Star Game , or the World Series , usually with much fanfare.
The President of the United States has served as the honorary president of the Boy Scouts of America since the founding of the organization. Other presidential traditions are associated with American holidays.
Hayes began in the first White House egg rolling for local children. Truman administration, every Thanksgiving the president is presented with a live domestic turkey during the annual National Thanksgiving Turkey Presentation held at the White House.
Since , when the custom of "pardoning" the turkey was formalized by George H. Bush , the turkey has been taken to a farm where it will live out the rest of its natural life.
Many outgoing presidents since James Buchanan traditionally give advice to their successor during the presidential transition. During a state visit by a foreign head of state, the president typically hosts a State Arrival Ceremony held on the South Lawn , a custom begun by John F.
Some argue that images of the presidency have a tendency to be manipulated by administration public relations officials as well as by presidents themselves.
One critic described the presidency as "propagandized leadership" which has a "mesmerizing power surrounding the office".
Kennedy was described as carefully framed "in rich detail" which "drew on the power of myth" regarding the incident of PT  and wrote that Kennedy understood how to use images to further his presidential ambitions.
Nelson believes presidents over the past thirty years have worked towards "undivided presidential control of the executive branch and its agencies".
Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of the Constitution sets three qualifications for holding the presidency. To serve as president, one must:. A person who meets the above qualifications would, however, still be disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions:.
The most common previous profession of U. Nominees participate in nationally televised debates , and while the debates are usually restricted to the Democratic and Republican nominees, third party candidates may be invited, such as Ross Perot in the debates.
Nominees campaign across the country to explain their views, convince voters and solicit contributions. Much of the modern electoral process is concerned with winning swing states through frequent visits and mass media advertising drives.
The president is elected indirectly by the voters of each state and the District of Columbia through the Electoral College, a body of electors formed every four years for the sole purpose of electing the president and vice president to concurrent four-year terms.
As prescribed by the Twelfth Amendment, each state is entitled to a number of electors equal to the size of its total delegation in both houses of Congress.
Additionally, the Twenty-third Amendment provides that the District of Columbia is entitled to the number it would have if it were a state, but in no case more than that of the least populous state.
On the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December, about six weeks after the election, the electors convene in their respective state capitals and in Washington D.
They typically vote for the candidates of the party that nominated them. While there is no constitutional mandate or federal law requiring them to do so, the District of Columbia and 30 states have laws requiring that their electors vote for the candidates to whom they are pledged.
The votes of the electors are opened and counted during a joint session of Congress, held in the first week of January. If a candidate has received an absolute majority of electoral votes for president currently of , that person is declared the winner.
Otherwise, the House of Representatives must meet to elect a president using a contingent election procedure in which representatives, voting by state delegation, with each state casting a single vote, choose between the top electoral vote-getters for president.
For a candidate to win, he or she must receive the votes of an absolute majority of states currently 26 of A 73—73 electoral vote tie between Thomas Jefferson and fellow Democratic-Republican Aaron Burr in the election of necessitated the first.
Conducted under the original procedure established by Article II, Section 1, Clause 3 of the Constitution, which stipulates that if two or three persons received a majority vote and an equal vote, the House of Representatives would choose one of them for president; the runner up would become Vice President.
Afterward, the system was overhauled through the Twelfth Amendment in time to be used in the election. Under the Twelfth Amendment, the House was required to choose a president from among the top three electoral vote recipients: Held February 9, , this second and most recent contingent election resulted in John Quincy Adams being elected president on the first ballot.
Pursuant to the Twentieth Amendment , the four-year term of office for both the president and vice president begins at noon on January As a result of the date change, the first term —37 of both men had been shortened by 43 days.
Before executing the powers of the office, a president is required to recite the presidential oath of office , found in Article II, Section 1, Clause 8.
This is the only component in the inauguration ceremony mandated by the Constitution:. I do solemnly swear or affirm that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.
Presidents have traditionally placed one hand upon a Bible while taking the oath, and have added "So help me God" to the end of the oath.
When the first president, George Washington, announced in his Farewell Address that he was not running for a third term, he established a "two-terms then out" precedent.
Precedent became tradition after Thomas Jefferson publicly embraced the principle a decade later during his second term, as did his two immediate successors, James Madison and James Monroe.
Grant sought a non-consecutive third term in ,  as did Theodore Roosevelt in though it would have been only his second full term. In , after leading the nation through the Great Depression , Franklin Roosevelt was elected to a third term, breaking the self-imposed precedent.
Four years later, with the U. Bush , and Barack Obama. Both Jimmy Carter and George H. Bush sought a second term, but were defeated.
Richard Nixon was elected to a second term, but resigned before completing it. Johnson , having held the presidency for one full term in addition to only 14 months of John F.
Article II, Section 4 of the Constitution allows for the removal of high federal officials, including the president, from office for " treason , bribery , or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
Two presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives: Andrew Johnson in , and Bill Clinton in Both were acquitted by the senate: Johnson by one vote, and Clinton by 17 votes.
Additionally, the House Judiciary Committee commenced impeachment proceedings against Richard Nixon in ; however, he resigned from office before the full House voted on the articles of impeachment.
Succession to or vacancies in the office of president may arise under several possible circumstances: Deaths have occurred a number of times, resignation has occurred only once, and removal from office has never occurred.
Under Section 3 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the president may transfer the presidential powers and duties to the vice president, who then becomes acting president , by transmitting a statement to the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate stating the reasons for the transfer.
The president resumes the discharge of the presidential powers and duties upon transmitting, to those two officials, a written declaration stating that resumption.
Such a transfer of power has occurred on three occasions: Ronald Reagan to George H. Bush once, on July 13, , and George W.
Bush to Dick Cheney twice, on June 29, , and on July 21, Under Section 4 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the vice president, in conjunction with a majority of the Cabinet , may transfer the presidential powers and duties from the president to the vice president by transmitting a written declaration to the Speaker of the House and the president pro tempore of the Senate that the president is incapacitated —unable to discharge their presidential powers and duties.
If this occurs, then the vice president will assume the presidential powers and duties as acting president; however, the president can declare that no such inability exists and resume the discharge of the presidential powers and duties.
If the vice president and Cabinet contest this claim, it is up to Congress, which must meet within two days if not already in session, to decide the merit of the claim.
The Cabinet currently has 15 members, of which the Secretary of State is first in line; the other Cabinet secretaries follow in the order in which their department or the department of which their department is the successor was created.
Those department heads who are constitutionally ineligible to be elected to the presidency are also disqualified from assuming the powers and duties of the presidency through succession.
No statutory successor has yet been called upon to act as president. Throughout most of its history, politics of the United States have been dominated by political parties.
Political parties had not been anticipated when the U. Constitution was drafted in , nor did they exist at the time of the first presidential election in — Organized political parties developed in the U.
Those who supported the Washington administration were referred to as "pro-administration" and would eventually form the Federalist Party , while those in opposition joined the emerging Democratic-Republican Party.
Greatly concerned about the very real capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency.
He was, and remains, the only U. The number of presidents per political party at the time of entry into office are: The White House in Washington, D.
The site was selected by George Washington, and the cornerstone was laid in Every president since John Adams in has lived there. At various times in U.
The federal government pays for state dinners and other official functions, but the president pays for personal, family, and guest dry cleaning and food.
A place of solitude and tranquility, the site has been used extensively to host foreign dignitaries since the s.
The primary means of long distance air travel for the president is one of two identical Boeing VC aircraft, which are extensively modified Boeing airliners and are referred to as Air Force One while the president is on board although any U.
Air Force aircraft the president is aboard is designated as "Air Force One" for the duration of the flight.
In-country trips are typically handled with just one of the two planes, while overseas trips are handled with both, one primary and one backup.
The president also has access to smaller Air Force aircraft, most notably the Boeing C , which are used when the president must travel to airports that cannot support a jumbo jet.
Any civilian aircraft the president is aboard is designated Executive One for the flight. For short distance air travel, the president has access to a fleet of U.
Marine Corps helicopters of varying models, designated Marine One when the president is aboard any particular one in the fleet.
Flights are typically handled with as many as five helicopters all flying together and frequently swapping positions as to disguise which helicopter the president is actually aboard to any would-be threats.
For ground travel, the president uses the presidential state car , which is an armored limousine designed to look like a Cadillac sedan, but built on a truck chassis.
The president also has access to two armored motorcoaches , which are primarily used for touring trips. The presidential plane, called Air Force One when the president is inside.
Marine One helicopter, when the president is aboard. Secret Service is charged with protecting the president and the first family.
As part of their protection, presidents, first ladies , their children and other immediate family members, and other prominent persons and locations are assigned Secret Service codenames.
Under the Former Presidents Act , all living former presidents are granted a pension, an office, and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times with Congressional approval.
Bush , and all subsequent presidents. Some presidents have had significant careers after leaving office. Grover Cleveland , whose bid for reelection failed in , was elected president again four years later in Two former presidents served in Congress after leaving the White House: John Quincy Adams was elected to the House of Representatives, serving there for seventeen years, and Andrew Johnson returned to the Senate in John Tyler served in the provisional Congress of the Confederate States during the Civil War and was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives, but died before that body first met.
Presidents may use their predecessors as emissaries to deliver private messages to other nations or as official representatives of the United States to state funerals and other important foreign events.
Bill Clinton has also worked as an informal ambassador, most recently in the negotiations that led to the release of two American journalists , Laura Ling and Euna Lee , from North Korea.
Clinton has also been active politically since his presidential term ended, working with his wife Hillary on her and presidential bids and President Obama on his reelection campaign.
As of February there are four living former U. The most recent former president to die was George H.
Bush — , on November 30, The living former presidents, in order of service, are:. Every president since Herbert Hoover has created a repository known as a presidential library for preserving and making available his papers, records, and other documents and materials.
Completed libraries are deeded to and maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration NARA ; the initial funding for building and equipping each library must come from private, non-federal sources.
There are also presidential libraries maintained by state governments and private foundations and Universities of Higher Education, such as the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum , which is run by the State of Illinois , the George W.
A number of presidents have lived for many years after leaving office, and several of them have personally overseen the building and opening of their own presidential libraries.
Some have even made arrangements for their own burial at the site. Several presidential libraries contain the graves of the president they document, including the Dwight D.
These gravesites are open to the general public. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the political talk radio channel, see P.
For other uses, see President of the United States disambiguation. For a list, see List of Presidents of the United States.
Constitution of the United States Law Taxation. Presidential elections Midterm elections Off-year elections. Democratic Republican Third parties Libertarian Green.
Powers of the President of the United States. Suffice it to say that the President is made the sole repository of the executive powers of the United States, and the powers entrusted to him as well as the duties imposed upon him are awesome indeed.
For further information, see List of people pardoned or granted clemency by the President of the United States. Imperial Presidency and Imperiled Presidency.
United States presidential primary , United States presidential nominating convention , United States presidential election debates , and United States presidential election.
Electoral College United States. United States presidential inauguration. Impeachment in the United States. List of residences of Presidents of the United States.
Transportation of the President of the United States. Jimmy Carter — Age Bill Clinton — Age Bush — Age Barack Obama — Age Government of the United States portal.
Phillips for the rapid transmission of press reports by telegraph. Truman ; Lyndon B. Johnson ; and Gerald Ford Later, while president, Johnson tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner.
Near the end of his presidency, Johnson rejoined the Democratic Party. The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 26, Retrieved November 15, Retrieved September 4, Retrieved November 1, Retrieved July 19, Retrieved November 9, The People Debate the Constitution, — New York, New York: A forgotten huge day in American history".
Retrieved July 29, Retrieved January 22, The History of Power". Proceedings of the American Political Science Association.
Origins and Development 5th ed. Its Origins and Development. In modern practice, each state chooses its electors in popular elections.
Once chosen, the electors meet in their respective states to cast ballots for the President and Vice President. The individual with the majority of votes became President, and the runner-up became Vice President.
In case of a tie between candidates who received votes from a majority of electors, the House of Representatives would choose one of the tied candidates; if no person received a majority, then the House could again choose one of the five with the greatest number of votes.
When the House voted, each state delegation cast one vote, and the vote of a majority of states was necessary to choose a President.
If second-place candidates were tied, then the Senate broke the tie. A quorum in the House consisted of at least one member from two-thirds of the state delegations; there was no special quorum for the Senate.
This procedure was followed in after the electoral vote produced a tie, and nearly resulted in a deadlock in the House. Obviously, having the Electors meet in the national capital or some other single venue could have permitted the Electors to choose a President be means of an exhaustive ballot without Congressional involvement, but the Framers were dissuaded from such an arrangement by two major considerations.
First, it would have been quite burdensome for Electors from distant states to travel to the national capital using eighteenth century means for the sole purpose of electing the President - since they were to be barred from simultaneously serving in the federal government in any other capacity, Electors would likely have no other reason to go there.
The 12th Amendment introduced a number of important changes to the procedure. Now, Electors do not cast two votes for President; rather, they cast one vote for President and another for Vice President.
In case no Presidential candidate receives a majority, the House chooses from the top three not five, as before the 12th Amendment.
It also stipulates that to be the Vice President, a person must be qualified to be the President. The Congress may determine the Time of chusing [ sic ] the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.
Congress sets a national Election Day. The Electors cast their votes on the Monday following the second Wednesday in December the first Monday after December 12 of that year.
Thereafter, the votes are opened and counted by the Vice President, as President of the Senate , in a joint session of Congress. Section 1 of Article Two of the United States Constitution sets forth the eligibility requirements for serving as president of the United States:.
No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.
At the time the President takes office they must be:. A person who meets the above qualifications, may still be constitutionally disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions:.
In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.
This clause was partially superseded by the 25th Amendment in The wording of this clause caused much controversy at the time it was first used.
When William Henry Harrison died in office, a debate arose over whether the Vice President would become President, or if he would just inherit the powers, thus becoming an Acting President.
However, many Senators argued that he only had the right to assume the powers of the presidency long enough to call for a new election.
Because the wording of the clause is so vague, it was impossible for either side to prove its point. The "Tyler Precedent" established that if the President dies, resigns or is removed from office, the Vice President becomes President.
The Congress may provide for a line of succession beyond the Vice President. There are concerns regarding the constitutionality of having members of Congress in the line of succession, however, as this clause specifies that only an " officer of the United States " may be designated as a presidential successor.
Constitutional scholars from James Madison to the present day have argued that the term "officer" excludes members of Congress.
The 25th Amendment explicitly states that if the President dies, resigns or is removed from office, the Vice President becomes President, and also establishes a procedure for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President.
The Amendment further provides that the President, or the Vice President and Cabinet, can declare the President unable to discharge his duties, in which case the Vice President becomes Acting President.
If the declaration is done by the Vice President and Cabinet, the Amendment permits the President to take control back, unless the Vice President and Cabinet challenge the President and two-thirds of both Houses vote to sustain the findings of the Vice President and Cabinet.
If the declaration is done by the President, he may take control back without risk of being overridden by the Congress.
The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.
The President may not receive other compensation from either the federal or any state government. Before he enters the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation: According to the Joint Congressional Committee on Presidential Inaugurations, George Washington added the words "So help me God" during his first inaugural,  though this has been disputed.
It is sometimes asserted that the oath bestows upon the President the power to do whatever is necessary to "preserve, protect and defend the Constitution.
In suspending the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus , President Abraham Lincoln claimed that he acted according to the oath.
His action was challenged in court and overturned by the U. Taney in Ex Parte Merryman , 17 F. The Vice President also has an oath of office, but it is not mandated by the Constitution and is prescribed by statute.
Currently, the Vice Presidential oath is the same as that for Members of Congress. I do solemnly swear or affirm that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about to enter.
So help me God. In the landmark decision Nixon v. General Services Administration , Justice William Rehnquist , afterwards the Chief Justice , declared in his dissent the need to "fully describe the preeminent position that the President of the United States occupies with respect to our Republic.
Suffice it to say that the President is made the sole repository of the executive powers of the United States, and the powers entrusted to him as well as the duties imposed upon him are indeed a powerful and incredible responsibility but as well as a great honor.
The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.
The Constitution vests the President with Executive Power. That power reaches its zenith when wielded to protect national security. Nevertheless, the power of the president to initiate hostilities has been subject to question.
Alexander Hamilton spoke in such terms when he said that the president, although lacking the power to declare war, would have "the direction of war when authorized or begun.
The President may require the "principal officer" of any executive department to tender his advice in writing.
While the Constitution nowhere requires a formal Cabinet , it does authorize the president to seek advice from the principal officers of the various departments as he or she performs their official duties.
George Washington found it prudent to organize his principal officers into a Cabinet, and it has been part of the executive branch structure ever since.
Presidents have used Cabinet meetings of selected principal officers but to widely differing extents and for different purposes.
Secretary of State William H. Seward advocated the use of a parliamentary-style Cabinet government to President Abraham Lincoln, but was rebuffed.
Later, Woodrow Wilson advocated use of a parliamentary-style Cabinet while he was a professor, but as President he would have none of it in his administration.
In recent administrations, cabinets have grown to include key White House staff in addition to department and agency heads. President Ronald Reagan formed seven subcabinet councils to review many policy issues, and subsequent Presidents have followed that practice.
The President, furthermore, may grant pardon or reprieves, except in cases of impeachment. As ruled by the Supreme Court in United States v. Wilson , the pardon could be rejected by the convict.
Then, in Burdick v. United States , the court specifically said, "Circumstances may be made to bring innocence under the penalties of the law. If so brought, escape by confession of guilt implied in the acceptance of a pardon may be rejected, preferring to be the victim of the law rather than its acknowledged transgressor, preferring death even to such certain infamy.
Commutations reduction in prison sentence , unlike pardons restoration of civil rights after prison sentence had been served may not be refused.
The Supreme court said, "[a] pardon in our days is not a private act of grace from an individual happening to possess power. It is a part of the Constitutional scheme.
When granted it is the determination of the ultimate authority that the public welfare will be better served by inflicting less than what the judgment fixed.
The President exercises the powers in the Advice and Consent Clause with the advice and consent of the Senate. He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: The President may enter the United States into treaties, but they are not effective until ratified by a two-thirds vote in the Senate.
The first abrogation of a treaty occurred in , when Congress passed a law terminating a Treaty of Alliance with France.
A Senate committee ruled that it was correct procedure for the President to terminate treaties after being authorized by the Senate alone, and not the entire Congress.
Some Presidents have claimed to themselves the exclusive power of terminating treaties. The first unambiguous case of a President terminating a treaty without authorization, granted prior to or after the termination, occurred when Jimmy Carter terminated a treaty with the Republic of China.
The President may also appoint judges, ambassadors, consuls, ministers and other officers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
By law, however, Congress may allow the President, heads of executive departments, or the courts to appoint inferior officials.
The Senate has a long-standing practice of permitting motions to reconsider previous decisions. In , the Senate granted advice and consent to the President on the appointment of a member of the Federal Power Commission.
The officer in question was sworn in, but the Senate, under the guise of a motion to reconsider, rescinded the advice and consent.
In the writ of quo warranto proceedings that followed, the Supreme Court ruled that the Senate was not permitted to rescind advice and consent after the officer had been installed.
After the Senate grants advice and consent, however, the President is under no compulsion to commission the officer. It has not been settled whether the President has the prerogative to withhold a commission after having signed it.
This issue played a large part in the famous court case Marbury v. At times the President has asserted the power to remove individuals from office.
President Johnson ignored the Act, and was later impeached and acquitted. The constitutionality of the Act was not immediately settled. Congress may repeal the legislation that authorizes the appointment of an executive officer.
But it "cannot reserve for itself the power of an officer charged with the execution of the laws except by impeachment.
The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.
He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.
The President must give the Congress information on the " State of the Union " "from time to time. Thomas Jefferson , who felt that the procedure resembled the speech from the throne delivered by British monarchs, chose instead to send written messages to Congress for reading by clerks.
The State of the Union Clause imposes an executive duty on the President. That duty must be discharged periodically. The president has the power and duty  to recommend, for the consideration of Congress, such measures which the president deems as "necessary and expedient".
At his inauguration George Washington declared in his Inaugural Address: The Recommendation Clause also imposes an executive duty on the President.
His recommendations respect the equal dignity of Congress and thus embody the anti-royalty sentiment that ignited the American Revolution and subsequently stripped the trappings of monarchy away from the new chief executive.
Through his recommendations to Congress, the President speaks collectively for the People as they petition Government for a redress of grievances, and thus his recommendations embody popular sovereignty.
The President tailors his recommendations so that their natural implication is the enactment of new legislation, rather than some other action that Congress might undertake.
Finally, the President shall have executive discretion to recommend measures of his choosing. Sidak explained that there is a connection between the Recommendation clause and the Petition Clause of the 1st Amendment: To muzzle the President, therefore, is to diminish the effectiveness of this right expressly reserved to the people under the first amendment.
The Right of Petition Clause prevents Congress from abridging the right of the people to petition for a redress of grievances.
The Recommendation clause imposes a duty, but its performance rests solely with the President. Congress possesses no power to compel the President to recommend, as he alone is the "judge" of what is "necessary and expedient.
Sawyer , the Supreme Court noted that the Recommendations Clause serves as a reminder that the President cannot make law by himself: City of New York The President has the undisputed authority to recommend legislation, but he need not exercise that authority with respect to any particular subject or, for that matter, any subject.
To allow the government to act quickly in case of a major domestic or international crisis arising when Congress is not in session, the President is permitted to call extraordinary sessions of one or both Houses of Congress.
If the two Houses cannot agree on a date for adjournment, the President may adjourn both Houses to such a time as befits the circumstances. The last time this power was exercised was in , when President Harry S Truman called a special session of Congress.
That was the twenty-seventh time in American history that a president convened such a session. Following the widespread adoption of transcontinental air travel in the second half of the twentieth century, Congress began meeting year-round.
Since that time, it has always been in session on every occasion when the President might otherwise have perceived the need to call Congress into extraordinary session.
The President receives all foreign Ambassadors. The President must "take care that the laws be faithfully executed. Discussing a tax rebellion , Washington observed, "it is my duty to see the Laws executed: Dellinger III , the Supreme Court and the Attorneys General have long interpreted the Take Care Clause to mean that the President has no inherent constitutional authority to suspend the enforcement of the laws, particularly of statutes.
United States , the Supreme Court explained how the President executes the law: The President may not prevent a member of the executive branch from performing a ministerial duty lawfully imposed upon him by Congress.
Madison ; and Kendall v. United States ex rel. Nor may the President take an action not authorized either by the Constitution or by a lawful statute.
Finally, the President may not refuse to enforce a constitutional law, or "cancel" certain appropriations, for that would amount to an extra-constitutional veto or suspension power.
The President, while having to enforce the law, also possesses wide discretion in deciding how and even when to enforce laws. When an appropriation provides discretion, the President can gauge when and how appropriated moneys can be spent most efficiently.
Some Presidents have claimed the authority under this clause to impound money appropriated by Congress.Roosevelt selbst erlebte jedoch den Test mvv monachium ersten Atombombe Juli nicht mehr, ebenso wenig wie den unter Harry S. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 6. Marix, WiesbadenS. Die lauwarme Position der Whigs spanien gegen italien live der Sklavenfrage, die den Kompromiss unterstützte, panda krankheit die Union zusammenzuhalten, fand in der polarisierten Debatte keine Unterstützer mehr. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte.