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Liga, leagues are generally subdivided on a regional basis. Below this are thirteen parallel divisions, most of which are called Oberligen upper leagues which represent federal states or large urban and geographical areas.
The levels below the Oberligen differ between the local areas. The league structure has changed frequently and typically reflects the degree of participation in the sport in various parts of the country.
In the early s, changes were driven by the reunification of Germany and the subsequent integration of the national league of East Germany.
Every team in the two Bundesligen must have a licence to play in the league, or else they are relegated into the regional leagues. To obtain a licence, teams must be financially healthy and meet certain standards of conduct as organisations.
Bundesliga is financially strong, and the 2. Bundesliga has begun to evolve in a similar direction, becoming more stable organizationally and financially, and reflecting an increasingly higher standard of professional play.
Hamburger SV was the only club to have played continuously in the Bundesliga since its foundation until 12 May , when the club was relegated for the first time.
In the —09 season, the Bundesliga reinstated an earlier German system of promotion and relegation, which had been in use from until From until , a different system had been used in which the bottom three finishers of the Bundesliga had been automatically relegated, to be replaced by the top three finishers in the 2.
From until two, or later three, teams had been relegated from the Bundesliga automatically, while promotion had been decided either completely or partially in promotion play-offs.
The season starts in early August  and lasts until late May, with a winter break of six weeks mid-December through to the end of January. In recent years, games have been played on Saturdays five games beginning at 3: A new television deal in reintroduced a Friday game beginning at 8: Prior to the formation of the Bundesliga, German football was played at an amateur level in a large number of sub-regional leagues until, in , part-time semi- professionalism was introduced and only five regional Oberligen Premier Leagues remained.
Regional champions and runners-up played a series of playoff matches for the right to compete in a final game for the national championship.
At the international level the German game began to falter as German teams often fared poorly against professional teams from other countries.
The league fielded 14 teams with two relegation spots. The defeat of the national team by Yugoslavia 0—1 in a World Cup quarter-final game in Chile was one impetus of many towards the formation of a national league.
East Germany, behind the Iron Curtain, maintained its separate league structure. The first Bundesliga games were played on 24 August Dynamo Dresden and F.
Hansa Rostock were seeded into the top-tier Bundesliga division, with other clubs being sorted into lower tiers. The German football champion is decided strictly by play in the Bundesliga.
Each club plays every other club once at home and once away. Originally, a victory was worth two points, with one point for a draw and none for a loss.
Since the —96 season, a victory has been worth three points, while a draw remains worth a single point, and zero points are given for a loss.
The club with the most points at the end of the season becomes German champion. Currently, the top three clubs in the table qualify automatically for the group phase of the UEFA Champions League , while the fourth-place team enters the Champions League at the third qualifying round see overview.
The two teams at the bottom of the table are relegated into the 2. Bundesliga, while the top two teams in the 2.
The 16th-placed team third-last , and the third-placed team in the 2. Bundesliga play a two-leg play-off match. The winner of this match plays the next season in the Bundesliga, and the loser in the 2.
If two clubs are still tied after all of these tie-breakers have been applied, a single match is held at a neutral site to determine the placement.
However, this has never been necessary in the history of the Bundesliga. In terms of team selection, matchday squads must have no more than five non-EU representatives.
Seven substitutes are permitted to be selected, from which three can be used in the duration of the game. That year it was the only European football league where clubs collectively made a profit.
By contrast, in the other major European leagues, numerous high-profile teams have come under ownership of foreign billionaires, and a significant number of clubs have high levels of debt.
After the German Football Association and the Bundesliga mandated that all clubs run a youth academy , with the aim of bolstering the stream of local talent for the club and national team.
This allows more money to be spent on the players that are bought, and there is a greater chance to buy better instead of average players. In the first decade of the third millennium s , the Bundesliga was regarded as competitive, as five teams have won the league title.
At the end of each season, clubs in the Bundesliga must apply to the German Football Federation DFB for a licence to participate again the following year; only when the DFB, who have access to all transfer documents and accounts, are satisfied that there is no threat of insolvency do they give approval.
In addition, no individual is allowed to own more than 49 percent of any Bundesliga club, the only exceptions being VfL Wolfsburg , Bayer Leverkusen and current Regionalliga Nordost member FC Carl Zeiss Jena should they ever be promoted to the Bundesliga as they were each founded as factory teams.
Despite the good economic governance, there have still been some instances of clubs getting into difficulties. In subsequent years, the club went through extensive restructuring to return to financial health, largely with young home-grown players.
Based on its per-game average, the Bundesliga is the best-attended association football league in the world; out of all sports, its average of 45, fans per game during the —12 season was the second highest of any professional sports league worldwide, behind only the National Football League of the United States.
Many club stadia have large terraced areas for standing fans by comparison, stadia in the English Premier League are all-seaters due to the Taylor Report.
Match tickets often double as free rail passes which encourages supporters to travel and celebrate in a relaxed atmosphere. They are very fan orientated".
Football has got to be for everybody. The spectator figures for league for the last eleven seasons:.
The Bundesliga broadcast rights are sold along with the broadcast rights to the Bundesliga Relegation Playoffs, 2. Three Friday night matches — the openers of the first and second halves of the season, and on the final matchday before the winter break — are broadcast to all Germans on ZDF.
Radio coverage includes the national Konferenz whip-around coverage on the stations of ARD and full match coverage on local radio stations.
The Bundesliga is broadcast on TV in over countries. In October , 21st Century Fox , via the Fox Sports , Fox International Channels , and Sky plc divisions, acquired television and digital rights to the Bundesliga in 80 territories, including North America and Asia outside of India and Oceania for five years, and selected European territories for two years, beginning in the —16 season.
CEO James Murdoch explained that the deal was designed to "leverage our unrivaled global portfolio of sports channels to bolster the Bundesliga brand in every corner of the globe.
Spanish-language telecasts air on Fox Deportes. Matches stream online for subscribers to these channels on participating providers via Fox Sports Go , and are also available through the subscription service Fox Soccer Match Pass.
ITV4 broadcasts delayed highlights the following Monday. This arrangement lasts through the season. In , digital TV operator StarTimes acquired exclusive television rights for Sub-Saharan Africa for 5 years starting from season.
The following 12 clubs have won the Bundesliga: No club from former East Germany or Berlin has won the Bundesliga. The former East German side Dynamo Berlin laid claim to the three stars of a time champion.
They petitioned the league to have their DDR-Oberliga titles recognized, but received no reply. Dynamo eventually took matters into their own hands and emblazoned their jerseys with three stars.
The issue also affects other former East German and pre-Bundesliga champions. BFC Dynamo Berlin have not followed this guideline and continue to wear three stars, rather than a single star inscribed with the number A new trophy — the Meisterschale — was introduced in the west in The first post-war champions were 1.
Over time, the notion of professionalism — long anathema to German sports — made inroads in the country. A consequence of this was that by , a distinct national amateur championship was established, open to teams playing below the Oberliga level in second- and third tier leagues.
The post-war occupation of Germany by the victorious Allies eventually led to the de facto partition of the country and the emergence of two separate German states, each with its own government and institutions.
Early plans to maintain a national championship to be contested by representatives from the eastern and western halves of the country quickly fell by the wayside in the context of the Cold War.
From through to an East German football champion was declared, until the eastern competition was reintegrated into the German national competition under the DFB.
FC Hansa Rostock captured the title in the transitional —91 season, and alongside runners-up Dynamo Dresden , advanced to play in the Bundesliga, thereby fully integrating former Eastern clubs into a unified German championship.
The formation of the Bundesliga in marked a significant change to the German football championship. The historical regional league and national playoff format was abandoned in favour of a single unified national league.
Sixteen teams from the five Oberligen in place at the time were invited to be part of the new circuit — which also for the first time formally acknowledged the sport as professional rather than amateur.
The new league adopted a round-robin format in which each team plays every other club once at home and once away. There is no playoff, with the club having the best record at the end of the season claiming the German championship.
Since then the competition has been dominated by Bayern Munich which has taken the championship in 27 of the 55 Bundesliga seasons played to Over the history of the German football championship 29 different clubs have won the title.
The most successful club is FC Bayern Munich with 28 titles to its credit, most of those coming in Bundesliga competition. The most successful pre-Bundesliga club is 1.
This system allows for the recognition of both German and East German titles , although only German titles are listed in the table below.
As of German football champions have come from 11 of the 16 German states. The most successful state is Bavaria with 41 championships. Bavaria is also home to the two individually most successful clubs, Bayern Munich and 1.
North-Rhine Westphalia follows with 25 championships. The state is home to the third and fourth most successful clubs, Borussia Dortmund and Schalke In most cases the regional associations of the DFB align with state borders in Germany.
For the champions of these states the regional associations are mentioned as well. From —45 Austria was part of Germany, and Austrian clubs were thus allowed to compete in the German football championship.
Rapid Wien won one championship in that period. In over a century of German football competition, champions were not declared in several seasons for various reasons.
The national championship was suspended in October due to World War I. Limited play continued on a regional basis in many parts of the country, while competition was abandoned in other areas.
Several regional leagues continued to declare champions or cup winners. The national championship was reinstated with the —20 season that was concluded with a 2—0 victory by 1.
The final was contested by 1. The match was called on account of darkness after three hours and ten minutes of play, drawn at 2—2.
Considerable wrangling ensued over the decision. The DFB awarded the win to Hamburg under the condition that they renounce the title in the name of "good sportsmanship" — which they grudgingly did.
Ultimately, the championship trophy was not officially presented that year. Competition for the national title was maintained through most of World War II and was supported by the regime for morale.
Play became increasingly difficult as the war drew to its conclusion due to manpower shortages, bombed-out stadiums, and the hardship and expense of travel.
The —45 season kicked off ahead of schedule in November; however, by March play had collapsed throughout Germany as Allied armies overran the country.
In —48, qualification play took place to determine Westzonen Western occupation zones and Ostzone Eastern occupation zone representatives to meet in a national final that never took place.
In the aftermath of World War I, several lesser national football competitions emerged as outgrowths of the tumultuous German political situation.
Through the s and s, each of these leagues staged their own national championships or fielded national sides.
Because of the ideologies they represented, they were considered politically unpalatable by the regime and disappeared in the reorganization of German football under the Third Reich that consolidated competition in state-sanctioned leagues.
German championships have included clubs from countries other than Germany. Following the Anschluss , which united Germany and Austria within the Third Reich in , Austrian clubs became part of German competition; Admira Wien made a losing appearance in the German national final in , Rapid Wien captured the championship in , and First Vienna also lost in In each case their opposition was Schalke Throughout the course of World War II, clubs in German-occupied territories were made part of German competition in the Gauligen and took part in the regional qualifying rounds of the national championship, but without the same success as Austrian sides.
Two trophies have been used for the official German and, during the era of the divided Germany, West German champions.
The trophy disappeared during the final stages of the war and would not resurface until after the German reunification. A new trophy, the Meisterschale , was commissioned after the war but was not ready for the first post-war champions in Instead it was first awarded to VfR Mannheim in While the original trophy has only the champions from to engraved the new one list all the German champions since and had to be enlarged on occasion.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. List of East German football champions. The match was called due to darkness after minutes of play.
The replay ended 1—1 when the referee called off the game while in extra time due to Nuremberg having just seven players remaining in the game.
Hamburg was awarded the championship but later declined.